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[HRC52 Joint Open Letter] Myanmar: The UN Human Rights Council must take concrete steps to actualize justice and bolster support for the people of Myanmar’s will for federal democracy and human rights

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Your Excellencies,

We, the undersigned 160 Myanmar, regional and international civil society organizations (CSOs), call for the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) to take concrete actions to advance accountability through all possible avenues, protect human rights of the Myanmar people, and strongly support their will for federal democracy.

We welcome the UNHRC resolution of 1 April 2022 which acknowledged the human rights situation in Myanmar as one of the Council’s important agenda. We however recognize that the resolution failed to adequately reflect or address the severity of the human rights and humanitarian crisis in Myanmar. The resolution also fell short in advancing justice and ending rampant impunity enjoyed by the Myanmar military for decades. During the 52nd Regular Session of the UNHRC, we call for the adoption of a meaningful and robust resolution which reflects the Myanmar people’s desire for federal democracy, pursues all available mechanisms and avenues for justice and accountability, and bolsters effective locally-led frontline humanitarian assistance.

While monitoring and reporting mandates on Myanmar by the UNHRC remain strong and robust, there is an urgent need for the Council to strengthen its efforts for justice and accountability. The creation of the Independent Investigative Mechanism for Myanmar (IIMM) to collect evidence of the most serious international crimes in Myanmar and prepare files for criminal prosecution — following the findings of the Independent International Fact-Finding Mission on Myanmar — was a substantial step in the right direction. However, the IIMM is not mandated to initiate prosecution, rendering justice elusive for victims of the most serious international crimes committed in Myanmar prior to its establishment in 2018, including the Rohingya genocide. Currently, there is no international court that has an investigation into all crimes committed in Myanmar.

We further express disappointment at the insubstantial UN Security Council (UNSC) resolution on Myanmar, adopted in December 2022, which failed to either uphold the Council’s responsibilities under Chapter VII of the UN Charter or refer the situation in Myanmar to the International Criminal Court (ICC).

The UNHRC must move the UN beyond solely gathering evidence to making justice a reality in Myanmar, by calling on the UN General Assembly (UNGA) and the UNSC to refer the situation in Myanmar to the ICC or establish a tribunal of its own. At the same time, we urge the Council to welcome the declaration lodged by the National Unity Government (NUG) under Article 12(3) of the Rome Statute to accept the ICC’s jurisdiction over international crimes committed in Myanmar territory since 1 July 2002, a significant step towards justice taken by Myanmar’s legitimate government. Finally, we urge the UNHRC to further recommend the UN member states, agencies and mechanisms supply financial, political and technical support for ongoing universal jurisdiction efforts in Argentina, Germany, Indonesia and Turkey.

Achieving accountability in Myanmar means justice for victims of the world’s most heinous crimes. Equally, securing justice will “[restore] any semblance of democratic rule, security and stability to the country,” as the High Commissioner himself stated, and by extension to the Southeast Asian region.

We are alarmed by the UN’s apathy towards the Myanmar military’s total disregard and undermining of the Five-Point Consensus (‘5PC’), devised by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), in the past 22 months. ASEAN itself has explicitly requested UN support in implementing the 5PC, while the UNSC resolution called for the implementation of it. The UN can no longer hide behind ASEAN. The UNHRC must strongly recommend the bloc to move beyond its failed plan based on extensive consultation with the NUG, ethnic revolutionary organizations (EROs) and civil society. It must further call on the UNSC to use all instruments at its disposal, including enforcing punitive measures, should the junta fail to comply with the resolution.

For the past two years, the military junta has deliberately carried out extrajudicial killings, massacres, sexual and gender-based violence, mass arbitrary arrests, torture in detention and other horrendous violations against civilians in Myanmar in a widespread and systematic manner. Since the failed coup, the junta has slain over 3,000 people and sentenced 144 people to death. In July 2022, it abhorrently executed four democracy activists, an act which the IIMM stated “could constitute crimes against humanity or war crimes.” We welcomed statements by the UN Secretary-General and the UNSC to condemn the execution, and urge the UNHRC to strongly follow suit.

Most notably, the junta has consistently launched airstrikes on civilians, including at schools, medical facilities, and religious sites. In September 2022, it murdered 11 children at a school in Let Yet Kone village, Sagaing Region, and a month later killed over 60 innocent civilians celebrating the founding of the Kachin Independence Organisation. On 14 and 16 February 2023, the junta’s jet fighters dropped bombs in Mutraw District in Karen State, destroying two rice warehouses and seven schools, including New Generation School which has offered higher education to Karen students for over ten years. The UNHRC must accurately recognize the gravity of the crisis in Myanmar as constituting crimes against humanity and war crimes. It must further condemn the junta’s rampant airstrikes targeting civilians, strongly call for a global arms embargo which covers all weapons, munitions and other equipment, as well as the provision of military assistance, and recommend member states to suspend direct and indirect supply and brokering of arms and aviation fuel to Myanmar.

The UN further has an obligation to ensure the protection of children in armed conflict. As the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, Tom Andrews, stated in his conference room paper, “the junta’s violent assaults on children … are part of its ongoing widespread and systematic attack on the people of Myanmar and likely constitute crimes against humanity and war crimes.”

As of 2 February 2023, over 1.2 million people have been internally displaced across Myanmar, while over 72,000 people have sought safety in India and Thailand. The junta’s primary role in creating and exacerbating the humanitarian crisis must be condemned by the UNHRC. The extension and widening of the unlawful state of emergency and martial law to cover additional 37 townships in strong resistance areas indicates that the junta only intensify its brutal attacks.

The UN must further reverse decades of systemic failures as its agencies continue to fall far short of executing any “complementary and mutually reinforcing work” to address the root causes of and improve the humanitarian and human rights tragedy in Myanmar. Most urgently, we call on the UN to stop allowing the junta to weaponize aid and ensure aid and relief reach those in direst need. To this end, it must direct its agencies and advocate for other aid providers including member states to partner with local frontline humanitarian actors, including ethnic and border-based civil society and community-based organizations, and the NUG and EROs, who have been providing assistance and services to affected communities.

The junta’s ongoing atrocities also present a tremendous obstacle to the safe, voluntary, dignified and sustainable return of Rohingya languishing in camps or harrowing conditions. The UNHRC must recognize this reality and welcome the International Court of Justice’s decision to reject Myanmar’s preliminary objections in the case lodged by The Gambia against Myanmar on the application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. Moreover, the UN should ensure member states, in particular Myanmar’s neighboring countries, act in line with the principle of non-refoulement, not only in regard to Rohingya refugees but all Myanmar refugees.

With the current crisis unfolding, it is paramount for the Myanmar people to have their voices represented at the UN. We welcome the High Commissioner’s accurate recognition of the Myanmar military’s action on 1 February 2021 as the attempted coup in the oral update to the 50th Session of the UNHRC and the statement on 27 January 2023. The UNHRC’s decision to reject the junta’s representative at its sessions since the 47th Regular Session of the UNHRC, in response to a collective call of Myanmar civil society, was further welcomed. However, the UNHRC must recognize the Myanmar people’s democratic will, as expressed in the November 2020 general elections, and legitimate government the NUG. The UNGA’s deferral of a credentials decision on Myanmar, an explicit rejection of the junta’s attempt to claim Myanmar’s seat at the UN, allows the NUG to continue to represent the people of Myanmar through Ambassador Kyaw Moe Tun at the UNGA. This should extend to the UNHRC and other UN Offices in Geneva. To exclude the representative of Myanmar to the UNGA from the 52nd Regular Session of the UNHRC is contradictory and, in effect, denying the people of Myanmar their legitimate representation.

As the junta conspires to illegally hold sham national elections, despite lacking legitimacy, a constitutional basis, and effective control of Myanmar’s territory as also made clear by the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, the UNHRC must unequivocally denounce any such plans, and reject potential voting results as illegitimate. The results of the 2020 elections already reflect the true will of the Myanmar people and provided the basis for the formation of the Committee Representing Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the NUG, and the National Unity Consultative Council.

The UNHRC must fully support the democratic will of the people of Myanmar, bring about justice and accountability, and strengthen locally-led humanitarian aid. To this effect, it must mobilize member states to utilize all tools at their disposal to actualize justice through all possible routes.

For further information, please contact:

  • Khin Ohmar, Founder and Chairperson, Progressive Voice; [email protected]
  • Zee Pe, Director, Athan – Freedom of Expression Activist Organization; [email protected]
  • Salai Za Uk Ling, Deputy Executive Director, Chin Human Rights Organisation; [email protected]
  • Ahmed Adam, Programme Manager, UN Advocacy, Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development (FORUM-ASIA), [email protected]


Signed by

  1. 8888 Generation (New Zealand)
  2. Action Against Myanmar Military Coup
  3. Action Committee for Democracy Development
  4. Active Youths (Kalay)
  5. Ah Nah Podcast, Ireland – conversations with Myanmar
  6. All Arakan Students’ and Youths’ Congress
  7. All Burma Democratic Front in New Zealand
  8. All Burma Indigenous People Alliance (ABIPA)
  9. ALTSEAN-Burma
  10. Anti-Junta Mass Movement – AJMM
  11. ASEAN Youth Forum (AYF)
  12. Asia Democracy Network (ADN)
  13. Asian Dignity Initiative
  14. Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development (FORUM-ASIA)
  15. Assistance Association for Political Prisoners
  16. Association of Human Rights Defenders and Promoters
  17. Association Suisse-Birmanie
  18. Athan – Freedom of Expression Activist Organization
  19. Auckland Kachin Community NZ
  20. Auckland Zomi Community
  21. Aung San Suu Kyi Park Norway
  22. Back Pack Health Worker Team
  23. Burma Action Ireland
  24. Burma Campaign UK
  25. Burma Human Rights Network
  26. Burma Medical Association
  27. Burma Task Force
  28. Burmese Community Group (Manawatu, NZ)
  29. Burmese Rohingya Organisation UK (BROUK)
  30. Burmese Rohingya Welfare Organisation New Zealand
  31. Burmese Women’s Union
  32. Cambodian Americans and Friends for Democracy and Human Right Advocate, CA
  33. Campaign for a New Myanmar
  34. Chin Community in Norway
  35. Chin Community of Auckland
  36. Chin Human Rights Organization
  37. CIVICUS: World Alliance for Citizen Participation
  38. Commission for the Disappeared and Victims of Violence (KontraS)
  39. Courage Fund Cambodia
  40. CRPH & NUG Supporters Ireland
  41. CRPH Funding Ireland
  42. CRPH Support Norway
  43. Democracy for Ethnic Minorities Organization
  44. Democracy, Peace and Women’s Organization
  45. Democratic Party for a New Society, Norway
  46. Dhanu Youth Organization
  47. Doh Atu – Ensemble pour le Myanmar (France)
  48. Educational Initiatives Prague
  49. Equality Myanmar
  50. Federal FM (Mandalay)
  51. Federal Myanmar Benevolence Group (NZ)
  52. Finland-Myanmar Association
  53. Foundation of Khmer Samaki, CA
  54. Free Burma Campaign (South Africa)
  55. Future Light Center
  56. Future Thanlwin
  57. Gandhi Development Trust
  58. Generation Wave
  59. German Solidarity with Myanmar Democracy eV
  60. Global Myanmar Spring Revolution
  61. Grass-root People
  62. Helping Hands for Burma (H2B) New York
  63. Human Rights Foundation of Monland
  64. Info Birmanie
  65. Initiatives for International Dialogue
  66. Institute for Asian Democracy
  67. International Association, Myanmar-Switzerland (IAMS)
  68. International Campaign for the Rohingya
  69. Justice For Myanmar
  70. Kachin Association Norway
  71. Kachin Women’s Association Thailand
  72. Karen Human Rights Group
  73. Karen Peace Support Network
  74. Karen Society Finland
  75. Karen Women’s Organization
  76. Karenni Association – Norway
  77. Karenni Civil Society Network
  78. Karenni National Women’s Organization
  79. Karenni Society New Zealand
  80. Kayan Women’s Organization
  81. K’cho Ethnic Association
  82. Keng Tung Youth
  83. Kyaukse University Students’ Union
  84. Kyauktada Strike Committee
  85. La Communauté BIRMANE de France
  86. Let’s Help Each Other
  87. Los Angeles Myanmar Movement (LA2M)
  88. Mandalay Regional Youth Association (MRYA)
  89. Me Boun Foundation
  90. Metta Campaign Mandalay
  91. Minority Affairs Institute – MAI
  92. Muslim Youth Network
  93. Myanmar Accountability Project
  94. Myanmar Action Group Denmark
  95. Myanmar Anti-Military Coup Movement in New Zealand
  96. Myanmar Baptist Churches in Norway
  97. Myanmar Campaign Network
  98. Myanmar Catholic Community In Norway
  99. Myanmar Community Group Christchurch New Zealand
  100. Myanmar Community Group Dunedin New Zealand
  101. Myanmar Community in Norway
  102. Myanmar Diaspora Group Finland
  103. Myanmar Engineers – New Zealand
  104. Myanmar Gonye (New Zealand)
  105. Myanmar Hindu Community – Norway
  106. Myanmar Muslim Organization – Norway
  107. Myanmar People Alliance (Shan State)
  108. Myanmar Students’ Union in New Zealand
  109. Nelson Myanmar Community Group New Zealand
  110. Netherlands Myanmar Solidarity Platform
  111. Network for Human Rights Documentation Burma (ND-Burma)
  112. New Zealand Doctors for NUG
  113. New Zealand Karen Association
  114. New Zealand Zo Community Inc.
  115. NLD Organization Committee (International) Norway
  116. No Business With Genocide
  117. Norway Falam Community
  118. Norway Matu Community
  119. Norway Rvwang Community
  120. Overseas Mon Association, New Zealand
  121. Padauk
  122. Pa-O Women’s Union
  123. Phoenix Settlement Trust
  124. Progressive Muslim Youth Association
  125. Progressive Voice
  126. Pyithu Gonye (New Zealand)
  127. Rohingya Action Ireland (RAI)
  128. Rohingya Community in Norway
  129. Rvwang Community Association New Zealand
  130. RW Welfare Society (RWWS)
  131. Save and Care Organization for Ethnic Women at Border Areas
  132. Save Myanmar Fundraising Group (New Zealand)
  133. Save Myanmar San Francisco
  134. Save Myanmar USA
  135. SEA Junction
  136. SGDM The Netherland
  137. Shan Community (New Zealand)
  138. Shan MATA
  139. Sitt Nyein Pann Foundation
  140. Southern Dragon Myanmar
  141. Southern Youth Development Organization
  142. Spring Revolution Myanmar Muslim Network
  143. Swedish Burma Committee
  144. Swedish Foundation for Human Rights
  145. Ta’ang Women’s Organization
  146. Ta’ang Legal Aid
  147. Tanintharyi MATA
  148. Thai Action Committee for Democracy in Burma (TACDB)
  149. The European Rohingya Council (ERC)
  150. The Ladies
  151. Thint Myat Lo Thu Myar Organization
  152. S. Campaign for Burma
  153. US Advocacy Coalition for Myanmar (USACM)
  154. With Myanmar (UK)
  155. Women Activists Myanmar
  156. Women’s League of Burma
  157. Women’s Peace Network
  158. Youth for democratization of Myanmar (UDM)
  159. Zomi Christian Fellowship of Norway